Vane Vacuum Pump

ปั๊มสร้างสุญญากาศแบบเวน หรือปั๊มแบบใบพัด

article vane vacuum pump

เวนปั๊มหรือปั๊มแบบใบพัด เป็นพีดีปั๊ม (Positive displacement pump) ที่มีคุณสมบัติพิเศษคือ มีความเร็วรอบที่สูง และเหมาะสำหรับใช้กับงานที่ต้องการอัตราการไหลสูงแต่แรงดันต่ำไปจนถึงขนาดปานกลาง มีทั้งแบบที่ใบพัดคงที่ กับแบบใบพัดปรับค่าได้ด้วยการย้ายจุดศูนย์กลางของตัวหมุนที่ใบพัดเสียบอยู่เสียบอยู่ ใช้ในการสร้างสุญญากาศ (Vacuum) ในระบบ เรียกว่า Vane vacuum pump



article vane vacuum pump

โครงสร้างของ Rotary vane pump

article vane vacuum pump

Vane pump มีทั้งแบบหล่อลื่นด้วยน้ำมัน (Oil lubricated) และหล่อลื่นโดยไม่ใช้น้ำมัน (Oil free) ซึ่งไม่มีน้ำมันปนเปื้อนในการผลิต

Components of Vane Pump:

article vane vacuum pump

Vane Pump

  • Casing:

The casing is the outer covering of the vane pump. All other components of the vane pump are present inside this casing.

There are two ports in the casing:
1.1 Inlet port:
The fluid enters the pump through this inlet port.
1.2 Outlet Port:
High pressure fluid leaves the pump through outlet port.

2) Shaft:

There is a shaft inside the vane pump which is connected to a prime mover.
A rotor is mounted on the shaft and it rotates using the power of the prime mover.

3) Rotor:

The rotor of the vane pump has slots that are present at an equal distance all around the rotor.
This rotor has various radial slots in it.

4) Sliding Vanes:

Sliding Vanes are present in the slots of the rotor. The sliding vanes move inside the slots of the rotor freely. The sliding vanes are of rectangular shape and are attached with the rotor using a spring.

5) Cam Ring:

Cam Ring is present at the inner wall of the casing.
Working Of Vane Pump:

  • At first, power is provided to the shaft of the pump using an electric motor.
  • After providing power, the shaft starts rotating and the rotor which is mounted on the shaft also starts rotating.
  • When the rotor rotates, the sliding vanes present at the slots of the rotor experience a centrifugal force that is directed radially outward.
  • Due to the centrifugal force on the sliding vanes, the vanes move outward and the spring which connects the rotor and vanes get extended.
  • Then the springs extend and sliding vanes establish contact with the cam-ring and this contact is established as long as the rotor rotates.
  • When the vanes reach a position where the distance between the rotor shaft and casing is less, the spring of the vane compresses to maintain contact with the cam-ring. At this position, the area between the two adjacent vanes and the casing is also less i.e the pocket size is less.
  • Similarly, when the vanes reach a position where the distance between the rotor shaft and the casing is more, the spring of the vane expands to maintain contact with the cam-ring. At this position, the area between the two adjacent vanes and the casing is also more.
  • When the rotor rotates continuously, after some time a suction is created in the inlet port due to which fluid gets sucked into the inlet port.
  • The fluid which is sucked through the inlet gets stuck between the two adjacent vanes and as the vanes are always in contact with the cam-ring, the stuck fluid rotates along with the two adjacent vanes.
  • While moving from the inlet port to the outlet port, the fluid experiences a centrifugal force which increases the pressure of the fluid, and this high-pressure fluid is delivered to the required area through the outlet port.
  • Near the inlet of the vane pump, the space between two adjacent vanes increases due to the increased distance between the shaft and casing. As the space increases between two adjacent vanes, a vacuum is created near the vane pump’s inlet. Due to the vacuum created, the suction starts, and the fluid is drawn in from the inlet of the pump.
  • After that, as the rotor continues to rotate the compression of the entrapped fluid starts due to a decrease in the space between adjacent vanes i.e the pocket size decreases. As the pocket size decreases, the volume of the fluid decreases, and the entapped fluid gets compressed and the pressure of the fluid increases. After that, the high-pressure fluid is discharged from the outlet of the vane pump.

ประเภทของ Vane Pump

1) Unbalanced Vane Pump
2) Balanced Vane Pump
3) Variable Displacement Vane Pump

1) Unbalanced Vane Pump:

- The unbalanced vane pump is the regular vane pump that you have studied in this article.
- It consists of a cylindrical rotor which is mounted at an offset inside a circular casing. It means the center of the cylindrical rotor and the center of the casing do not coincide. The Center of the casing and the center of the rotor are at some distance.

article vane vacuum pump

Unbalanced Vane Pump

- No leakage occurs between the vane tips and the casing.
- A side thrust is created on the rotor shaft due to differences in pressure between the inlet and the outlet ports. Due to the side thrust on the rotor shaft, the bearing life reduces. Due to differences in pressure in the inlet and the outlet port, this vane pump is called an unbalanced vane pump.
- In a balanced vane pump, there is no side thrust on the rotor shaft.

 2) Balanced Vane Pump:

- In a balanced vane pump, the casing is elliptical in shape. The center of the rotor and the elliptical casing is the same and no offset is used.
- For balancing, two inlets, and two outlets are provided due to which no pressure difference is created between the inlets and the outlets.

article vane vacuum pump

Balanced Vane Pump

- Two inlets are present on the opposite side of each other and the two outlets are present on the opposite side of each other.
- Due to this type of arrangement of inlets and outlets, the equal and opposite thrust gets balanced and hence no side thrust is experienced by the rotor shaft.
- The balanced pump gives better service and longer life.
- The pocket-size between two vanes increases when moving from outlet to inlet and pocket-size decreases when moving from inlet to outlet. Hence there is suction in the inlet ports and delivery at the outlet ports.

3) Variable Displacement Vane Pump:

In a variable displacement vane pump, the pocket-size can be varied.
- Due to varying pocket sizes, the discharge from the outlet varies.
- In this variable displacement vane pump, the vane is not in direct contact with the casing.

article vane vacuum pump


Variable Displacement Vane Pump

- In between the casing and the vane a ring is provided and this ring is called a reaction ring.
- On one side the reaction ring is connected with the adjusting screw and on the other side, it is connected with a spring.
- The adjusting screw is used to vary the pocket size of this pump.
- By turning the adjusting screw, the reaction ring can be moved upward or downward.
- By moving the reaction ring upward or downward, the offset between the reaction ring center and the rotor center.
- As the offset changes, the pocket-size also changes and hence the discharge from the pump varies.
Advantages of vane pumps are as follows:

  1. 1. Vane pumps are self-priming, robust, and supply constant delivery at a given speed.
    2. They provide uniform discharge with negligible pulsations.
    3. Their vanes are self-compensating for wear and vanes can be replaced easily.
    4. These pumps do not require check valves.
    5. They are light in weight and compact.
    6. They can handle liquids containing vapors and gases.
    7. Volumetric and overall efficiencies are high.
    8. Discharge is less sensitive to changes in viscosity and pressure variations.

    Disadvantages of vane pumps are as follows:

  1. 1. Relief valves are required to protect the pump in case of sudden closure of delivery.
    2. They are not suitable for abrasive liquids.
    3. They require good seals.
    4. They require good filtration systems and foreign particles can severely damage the pump.

    Advantages of balanced vane pumps are as follows:

  1. 1. The balanced pump eliminates the bearing side loads and therefore high operating pressure can be used.
    2. The service life is high compared to the unbalanced type due to less wear and tear.

    Disadvantages of balanced vane pumps are as follows:

  1. They are fixed displacement pumps.
    2. Design is more complicated.
    3. The manufacturing cost is high compared to the unbalanced type.

Application of oil lubricated rotary vanes
Chemical and pharmaceutical processes

  • Crystallization
  • Degassing
  • Distillation
  • Drying
  • Evaporation
  • Fractionation
  • Impregnation
  • Super cooling
  • Vacuum coating (sublimation)
  • Vacuum filtration

Environmental engineering

  • Aeration
  • Drying
  • Dust extraction systems

Food processing

  • Bottling and filling machines
  • Cutting machines

Industrial applications

  • Drying systems
  • Dust extraction systems
  • Industrial furnaces
  • Vacuum hold down

Packaging industry

  • Centralized vacuum systems
  • Packaging machines

Pneumatic conveying
Woodworking industry

  • Dust extraction systems
  • Vacuum hold down

Application of dry running rotary vanes
The dry running pumps use dry graphite vanes, which rub over the surface of the housing cylinder. This creates a graphite layer on the surface, which allows the vanes to slide with minimal wear

Environmental engineering

  • Aeration

Industrial applications

  • Lifting and holding
  • Pick and Place

Packaging industry

  • Packaging machines

Printing industry

  • Post-press applications
  • Printing presses

Woodworking industry

  • Vacuum hold down

Materials Of Construction / Configuration Options

  • Externals (head, casing) - Cast iron, ductile iron, steel, and stainless steel.
  • Vane, Pushrods - Carbon graphite, PEEK®.
  • End Plates - Carbon graphite
  • Shaft Seal - Component mechanical seals, industry-standard cartridge mechanical seals, and magnetically-driven pumps.
  • Packing - Available from some vendors, but not usually recommended for thin liquid service

การเลือกใช้ปั๊มจะต้องกำหนดความดันและปริมาณการไหลที่ต้องการแล้ว การออกแบบ (Design) ตรงกับมาตรฐานอุตสาหกรรมที่ยอมรับ (Design code and standard เช่น ANSI, API, ISO, JIS, DIN, NFPA เป็นต้น) และคำแนะนำที่ยอมรับในการออกแบบปั๊มอุตสาหกรรม (Industrial practices) ชนิดนั้นๆ

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